This list is a compilation of readings which are valuable to a general understanding of the operation of Cockroach. This list is extensive(but not exhaustive), don't feel you need to read everything here, it's provided as a way to drill down into topics you find interesting, if you so choose. The entries in each section are roughly organized in recommended order of consumption, but this is not a strict ordering in any sense.
The formal genesis of linearizability. I think reading this is confusing because it's actually slightly different and much more formal from how people talk about linearizability in the real world, but I still think it's valuable. It goes off the rails in section 4, though.
This paper is the primary source of the idea to use batched, templated, column-at-a-time execution to avoid the interpretation and type-lookup overhead inherent in the Volcano model. CockroachDB's nascent vectorized execution engine follows the ideas in this paper closely.
This paper is really important! Read it if you're interested in CockroachDB's exec package and vectorized execution.
It's also written by Marcin Zukowski, cofounder of Snowflake